Boris Pasternak was named the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1958. He is best known for the novel Doctor Zhivago, an epic which spanned the last days of the Russian Empire and the early days of the Soviet Union. The novel was made into a movie in 1965, one of the greatest movies ever made. With a touching story, grand scenery, and moving music. He was pressured by the then Soviet authorities to decline the award. He died in 1960. In 1988, Doctor Zhivago was finally published in Russia.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was the author of Gulag Archipelago, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, The First Circle, The Cancer Ward, ... Books that helped the world learn about the oppression, and particularly the forced labour camps in the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970. He was prevented from accepting the award, and expelled from the Soviet Union in 1974. He returned to Russia in 1994, and died in 2008.