This is a fascinating region in central Turkey. First of all, it is full of national wonders. Some of them have been described as “fairy chimneys”, “tent rock”, or “earth pyramids”. It is basically a think layer of soft rock covered by a thin layer of hard rock.
In time, the rocks are eroded and washed away. Sometimes, however, a small cap of the hard rock remains and protects the soft rock below. The result can be a cone, a pillar, or some variation of such.
Some natural caves form in the rocks. And people started living in them. Some dug more holes. Some found them natural hiding places. In early Christian times, many Christians faced persecution from the Romans. Many moved here, built churches and monasteries, and form communities. This region remained an important part of Greek Christianity for a thousand years.
Around 1000 AD, the Seljuk Turks moved into Anatolia. Some residents converted to Islam. But much of the Greek-Byzantine population moved to the Ionian coast. Today the population is basically Turkish.